مهاجرت نیروی کار از ایران به کشورهای OECD و عوامل اقتصادی مؤثر بر آن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه اقتصاد، دانشکده اقتصاد و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 گروه اقتصاد، دانشکده اقتصاد و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی کارشناس پژوهشی مرکز تحقیقات اقتصاد اسلامی، دانشکده اقتصاد و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

چکیده

نیروی کار یکی از مهمترین عوامل تولید است و خروج آن از کشور متضمن هزینه فرصت اقتصادی برای جامعه خواهد بود. در این مطالعه تلاش شده است عوامل اقتصادی مؤثر بر مهاجرت نیروی کار ایران طی سال‌های 2012-2002 مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. در بررسی مساله از مبانی نظری الگوی جاذبه و روش تخمین داده‌های تابلویی استفاده شده است. در تخمین روابط از نرم افزار استتا بهره گرفته شده است.  در این مطالعه، مهاجرت نیروی کار از ایران به 8 کشور عضو OECD بررسی شده است که بیشترین سهم از مهاجرت نیروی کار ایرانی را داشته اند. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از آن است که متغیرهای جمعیت، تجارت خارجی و رشد اقتصادی موجب کاهش روند مهاجرت می‌شوند و در مقابل  افزایش در  جمعیت، تجارت خارجی، رشد اقتصادی و دستمزد کشورهای مقصد، به‌علاوه افزایش نرخ بیکاری در ایران و تعداد مهاجران ایرانی در کشورهای مقصد نیز موجب افزایش مهاجرت نیروی کار شده و عوامل جاذبه‌ی مهاجرت به کشورهای OECD شناخته شده‌اند. بر این اساس، با توجه به تاثیر معنادار و قابل توجه متغیرهای نرخ بیکاری و رشد اقتصادی کشور در جریان مهاجرت، برنامه ریزی برای بهبود شرایط اقتصادی کشور به منظور کنترل روند صعودی آن ضروری به نظر می‌رسد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Iranian Labor Migration to OECD Countries and Economic Factors Affecting it

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aliakbar Arabmazar 1
  • Rassam Moshrefi 1
  • mohammad mostafazadeh 2
1 Department of Economic, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Shahid Beheshti University
2 Department of Economic, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

Labor is one of the most important factors of production and its migration abroad imposes economic opportunity costs to the society. In this study we have tried to examine economic factors involved in labor migration from Iran during 2002-2012. In this study, the theoretical foundations of the gravity models and estimation method of Panel data have been used for labor migration from Iran to 8 OECD member countries. These countries have the largest share of Iran's labor migration. The esults show that increase in population, foreign trade and economic growth of Iran decrease labor migration. On the other hand the increase in population, foreign trade, economic growth and wages of destination OECD countries, in addition to, the increase in unemployment rate in Iran and accumulation of Iranian immigrants in destination countries increase labor migration. Accordingly, due to the significant and strong impact of unemployment rate and GDP growth of Iran on migration flows, devising plan to improve economic conditions of Iran is necessary to control the upward trend of migration.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Migration
  • Labor Force
  • Economic Growth
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