تأثیر کارآفرینی بر بهره‌وری کل عوامل تولید

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه اقتصاد دانشکده علوم اجتماعی و اقتصادی دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه اقتصاد دانشکده علوم اجتماعی و اقتصادی، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران

3 کارشناس ارشد اقتصاد دانشکده علوم اجتماعی و اقتصادی دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران

چکیده

ارتقای بهره­وری کل عوامل تولید یکی از اهداف اقتصادی است و شناخت عوامل مؤثر بر آن همواره از سوی اقتصاددانان مورد تأکید بوده است. از مهم‌ترین عوامل مؤثر بر ارتقای بهره­وری کل عوامل تولید، می‌توان به کارآفرینی اشاره نمود. با توجه به اهمیت این مسئله، مطالعه حاضر به ارزیابی نقش کارآفرینی بر بهره­وری کل عوامل تولید در سه گروه از کشورهای منبع محور (9 کشور از جمله ایران)، کارایی محور(10کشور) و نوآوری محور (16 کشور) با استفاده از روش گشتاورهای تعمیم یافته طی دوره زمانی2017- 2008پرداخته است. نتایج مطالعه حاکی از تأثیر مثبت و معنادار شاخص کارآفرینی و هر کدام از پنج زیر شاخص اصلی آن (کارآفرینی نوظهور، کارآفرینی نوپا، کارآفرینی جدید، کارآفرینی تثبیت­شده و خروج از کسب­و کار) بر بهره­وری کل عوامل تولید در گروه کشورهای مورد مطالعه است. ضریب شاخص کارآفرینی نوظهور در کشورهای منبع­محور بزرگتر از کشورهای کارایی­محور و نوآوری­محور است. همچنین تأثیر باز بودن تجاری، فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، آموزش و شدت سرمایه به عنوان متغیرهای کنترلی در الگو، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت که از این میان تأثیر باز بودن تجاری بر بهره­وری کل عوامل تولید در کشورهای منبع­محور بی معنی و در کشورهای  نوآوری­محور و کارایی­محور مثبت و معنادار، تأثیر آموزش مثبت و معنادار، تأثیر شدت سرمایه مثبت و معنادار و اثر فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات در گروه کشورهای منبع­محور و نوآوری محور بی­معنی­ و در گروه کشورهای کارایی­محور مثبت و ­معنادار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Entrepreneurship on Total Productivity Productivity

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Shahabadi 1
  • hamid kurdbacheh 2
  • Parvaneh Hajiazizi 3
1 Professor of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences and Economics, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Economics, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
3 MA in Economics, Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences and Economics, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The promotion of total factor productivity is one of the economic goals, and the recognition of the factors influencing it has always been emphasized by economists. Entrepreneurship can be mentioned as one of the most important factors affecting the promotion of total factor productivity. Considering the importance of this issue, the present study assesment the role of entrepreneurship on total factor productivity in three groups of countries Factor-oriented (9 countries, including Iran), efficiency- oriented (10 countries) and innovation-oriented (16 countries) using generalized moment of method (GMM) during the period of 2008-2015. The results of the study indicate that the positive and significant impact of the entrepreneurship index and each of the five main indices (nascent entrepreneurial, early-stage entrepreneurial, new business owners, established business owners and exit from business) on the total factor productivity in the studied countries. The index coefficient of nascent entrepreneurial in factor-oriented countries is greater than efficiency- oriented and innovation-oriented countries. Also, the impact of openness, information communication and technology, education, and capital intensity were examined as controlling variables in the model among these, the effect of openness on total factor productivity in factor-oriented countries is meaningless, and in the efficiency- oriented and innovation- oriented countries is positive and meaningful, the effect education of positive and meaningful, the effect of capital intensity is positive and meaningful, and the effect of information and communication technology in the factor-oriented and innovation- oriented countries is negative and meaningless and in the efficiency- oriented countries group is positive and meaningful.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Total Factor Productivity
  • Entrepreneurship
  • GMM
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