Investigating The Energy Resilience of Iran and Selected Neighboring Countries: The Multi-Region Input–Output Linear Programming Models

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associate Professor of Economics, Faculty of Management and Economics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

2 Associate of Economics, Faculty of Management and Economics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

3 MA in Energy Economics, Faculty of Management and Economics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran



The topic of energy resilience has been noticed a lot in recent decades. Resilience refers to ability of the system to face intense disturbances with a low probability of occurrence. A system is resilient, where it can de facto absorb the temporary or permanent risks and adjust itself with rapidly changing positions of the economy without losing its efficiency factor. In this study we propose a multi- region input–output model to study the energy resilience of several multi-country economies in the year of 2014 with accounts for the inter-sectoral and inter-regional dependencies in the economic structure. The model computes the impacts of random energy production disruptions on the entire multi-regional input–output system in the form of final demand deficits. The results show that when the supply of electricity decreases, the sector's demand for other energy carriers increases, it means, it substitutes these energy carriers with electricity. But Generally Other energy carriers are not suitable substitutes for all economic sectors. We also observed that in the case of trade between countries, the occurrence of a shock in one region is covered by other regions therefore cooperation among regions can improve the individual and collective energy resilience significantly.


Main Subjects

- Bazzazan, F. (2011). The increasing coefficients of production, employment and income in the input-output model of two regions. Quantitative Economic Research Quarterly, 8(2), 151_178 (In Persian).
- Carrico, C., Corong, E., & van der Mensbrugghe, D. (2020). The GTAP 10A Multi-Region Input Output (MRIO) Data Base.
- Gatto, A., & Drago, C. (2020). A taxonomy of energy resilience. Energy Policy, 136, 111007.
- Gatto, A., & Drago, C. (2020). Measuring and modeling energy resilience. Ecological Economics, 172, 106527
- Ghiasvand, A. Abdolshah, F. (2015). Economic resilience indicators. Ravand, 22(71), 79-106 (In Persian).
- Ghiasvand, A. & Abdolshah, F. (2015). The concept and evaluation of Iran's economic resilience. Economic research paper, 15(59), 161_187 (In Persian)
- Golizade, J. (2018). Regional input output model and its applications in land surveying, Research and study institute for the development of entrepreneurs, 120 (In Persian).
- Haghshenas, M. Hooshmand, R. Gholipour, M. (2022). Stochastic planning to improve the resilience of electrical energy distribution systems against severe dust storms. Journal of electrical engineering and computer engineering of Iran, 2(2) (In Persian)- Hatami, Y., Sadeghi, Z., Jalaei, S. A., & Abdollahi, A. (2018). Effects of Water Resources Limitation on Capacity Expansion Planning of Power Generation: An Application of Multi-Objective Model under Uncertainty Conditions. Journal of Economics and Modeling, 9(3), 157-185 (In Persian).- He, P., Ng, T. S., & Su, B. (2019). Energy-economic resilience with multi-region input–output linear programming models. Energy Economics, 84, 104569.- Jasiūnas, J., Lund, P. D., & Mikkola, J. (2021). Energy system resilience–A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 150, 111476.- Lammers, K., Bertheau, P., & Blechinger, P. (2020). Exploring requirements for sustainable energy supply planning with regard to climate resilience of Southeast Asian islands. Energy Policy, 146, 111770.- Sharifi, A., & Yamagata, Y. (2016). Principles and criteria for assessing urban energy resilience: A literature review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 60, 1654-1677.- Underwood, G., Hill, D., & Lamichhane, S. (2020). Earthquakes, blockades and energy crises: A conceptual framework for energy systems resilience applied to Nepal. Energy Research & Social Science, 69, 101609.- Yazdanie, M. (2023). Resilient energy system analysis and planning using optimization models. Energy and Climate Change, 4, 100097.- Zamani Gargari, M. & Ghaffarpour, R. (2020). Increasing Energy Security by Using the Concept of Resiliency in Multi-Energy Infrastructures. Advanced Defense Sci .& Technol. 2020, 01, 419-432 (In Persian).