Measuring and Analyzing the Specific Water Demand for Agricultural Products and the Position of Iran in Trade with other Countries

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 MA in Planning and Economic Syatems, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran



Water resources management and use in agriculture are important due to the scarcity of water and soil resources and the increasing demand for food because of population growth. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the volume of water exported and imported in the form of agricultural products trade. For this purpose, the technical-baseline approach has been used to measure virtual water and special water demand of trade for 36 crops and garden products has been calculated for the period 2001-2015. The results showed that Iran was a virtual net water importer in the agronomy crops in the mentioned years and a virtual net water exporter in the garden products. In general, iran was net virtual water importer. On average, Iran exported 4.3 billion cubic meters of annual crops and 15.8 billion cubic meters of imported water annually through trade in crops and garden products. Among crops and garden products, legumes and pulses are the most widely consumed crops based on their estimated specific water demand. The results provide some information that can be used to optimize the commercial mix of agricultural products to conserve water resources and ensure food security.


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