تحلیل تأثیر مالیات سبز بر میزان انتشار آلاینده‌ها و شاخص سلامت در ایران: الگوی معادلات همزمان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه اقتصاد، دانشکده علوم اقتصادی و سیاسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

در فرایند رشد و توسعه پایدار، ارتباط بین محیط زیست، سلامت و رشد اقتصادی از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. بنابراین، اگرچه افزایش رشد اقتصادی می‌تواند باعث بهبود شاخص سلامت شود، همزمان می‌تواند با کاهش کیفیت محیط زیست آثار منفی بر شاخص سلامت جامعه داشته باشد. در نتیجه در چارچوب مکانیزم بازار، در حالتی که پیامدهای جانبی منفی وجود داشته باشد، وضعیت بهینه پارتو تحقق پیدا نمی‌کند و موجب شکست بازارمی‌شود. دولت در این حالت می‌تواند با وضع مالیات بر هر واحد آلاینده باعث بهبود کیفیت محیط زیست و شاخص سلامت در جامعه شود. بر این اساس، در این تحقیق تأثیر مالیات سبز بر میزان انتشار آلاینده‌ها و شاخص سلامت در ایران با استفاده از روش اقتصادسنجی حداقل مربعات دو مرحله‌ای و سیستم معادلات همزمان در دوره (1393-1359) تحلیل می‌شود. نتایج حاصل از برآورد الگو، بیانگر این است که وضع مالیات سبز باعث کاهش انتشار آلاینده‌ها می‌شود. همچنین، به طور همزمان کاهش انتشارآلاینده‌ها باعث افزایش شاخص سلامت شده است.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyzing the Impact of Green Tax on Emission of Pollution and Health Index in Iran: A Simultaneous Equations Model

نویسندگان [English]

  • hojjat izadkhasti
  • ali akbar arabmazar
  • moggan khoshnamvand
Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Political Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

In the process of sustainable development, the relationship between environment, health and economic growth is very important. So, although economic growth can improve health indicators, reducing the quality of the environment can have negative effects on society health indicators. As well as a result, in the context of the market mechanism, in the case where there are negative externalities, Pareto optimal condition is not occur and induce market failure. In this case, the government by lay tax on each unit of pollutant, can improves the quality of the environment and health index in society. In this study, the effects of green taxes on emissions of pollution and health index in Iran, analyzed using a two-stage least square technique and system of simultaneous equations, during the period (1989-2014). The results of the model indicate that green tax will reduce pollutant. Also, simultaneously reducing emissions of pollution will increase the health index.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental pollution
  • Green Taxes
  • Health Index
  • Simultaneous Equations
  • Iran
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