تأثیر سرمایة کارآفرینی بر تولید و رشد بخش صنعت ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیئت علمی دانشکدة کارآفرینی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

هدف این مقاله سنجش رابطة بین سرمایة کارآفرینی و تولید و رشد بخش صنعت ایران است. از نظریه‌‌های تابع تولید و مدل‌های رشد درونزا برای تبیین مبانی تابع تولید و مدل رشد بخش صنعت کشور  استفاده و مدل‌های تجربی شناسایی و تصریح می‌شود. از داده‌های سری زمانی دورة 1385-1353 بخش صنعت، استفاده و با به‌کارگیری تکنیک ARDL، روابط بلندمدت و کوتاه‌مدت بین متغیرهای تابع تولید و مدل رشد برآورد می‌شود. برای متغیر سرمایة کارآفرینی، از دو نماگر خویش‌فرمایان و کارفرمایان که عموماً در ادبیات مطرح است، استفاده می‌شود. بخش صنعت کشور تأیید می‌کند که رابطة بین کارآفرینی و ارزش‌افزودة بخش صنعت به‌صورت S شکل ملایم است، همچنین نظریة پورتر را تأیید می‌کند. نتایج برآورد‌های مدل تابع تولید نشان می‌دهد که سرمایة سرانة کارآفرینی - محاسبه شده بر اساس نسبت کارفرمایان به اشتغال - بر تولید و رشد سرانة بخش صنعت از نظر آماری تأثیر مثبت و معناداری دارد و کشش تولیدی بلندمدت آن 37/0 درصد است. همچنین سرمایة انسانی و سرمایة فیزیکی سرانه تأثیر مثبت و معناداری بر تولید و رشد سرانة بخش صنعت دارد. در میان عوامل تولید، بیشترین تأثیرگذاری با کشش تولیدی 54/0 درصد به سرمایة انسانی و پس از آن به سرمایة کارآفرینی تعلق دارد. نتایج آزمون‌های علیت وجود رابطة یک طرفه از سمت سرمایة کارآفرینی بر تولید و رشد بخش صنعت را تأیید می‌کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Entrepreneurship Capital, Output and Growth on Iran's Manufacturing Industries

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohammad Ali Moradi
Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

The objective of this article is to examine the impact of entrepreneurship on the performance of Iran's manufacturing industries using time series data over the period of 1974-2006. More specifically, entrepreneurship capital measures are calculated and included in the production function of manufacturing industries using a specification of the Cobb-Douglas functional form as a basis for analyzing growth determinants. To evaluate this, two alternative measures of entrepreneurship capital are considered. They comprise self-employments and enterprises that hire labor force.
Cointegration analysis of time series approach is carried out to examine the factors affecting output and growth in manufacturing industries with an emphasis on entrepreneurship indicators. To understand the current state of entrepreneurship and economic situation of the country, a comprehensive review of pertinent statistics related to entrepreneurship, output and growth is examined to find major stylized facts in the economy.
The findings of this paper indicate that entrepreneurship capital is a significant and important factor shaping output and growth in Iran's manufacturing industries. The results confirm that enterprises measure of entrepreneurship has positive and significant impacts on output in both the long run and short run. Therefore, the evidence from this paper points to an additional factor - entrepreneurship capital - that also plays an important role in the production function and growth model in this sector. These results suggest a new direction for policies that focus on instruments to enhance entrepreneurship capital. It may be that policies focusing on enhancing entrepreneurship capital can prove to be more effective than those targeting the more traditional factors, such as capital and labor.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Entrepreneurship
  • Manufacturing Industries
  • Endogenous Growth Model
  • time series
  • Iran
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