اندازه‌گیری و تحلیل تقاضای آب ویژه محصولات کشاورزی و جایگاه ایران در تجارت با سایر کشورها

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه اقتصاد دانشکده اقتصاد و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد برنامه‌ریزی سیستم‌های اقتصادی، دانشکده اقتصاد و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مدیریت منابع و مصارف آب در بخش کشاورزی به دلیل کمبود منابع آب و خاک و تقاضای رو به افزایش مواد غذایی به دلیل رشد جمعیت حائز اهمیت است. از این رو، هدف این مطالعه ارزیابی حجم آب صادر و وارد شده در قالب تجارت محصولات کشاورزی است. برای این منظور رهیافت شاخص­های فنی-پایه برای اندازه‌گیری آب مجازی مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است و تقاضای آب ویژه و تجارت آب مجازی 36 محصول زراعی و باغی برای دوره زمانی 94-1380 محاسبه شده است. نتایج نشان داد که کشور ایران در سال‌های مذکور در بخش محصولات زراعی واردکننده خالص آب مجازی و در بخش محصولات باغی صادرکننده خالص آب مجازی است و در مجموع واردکننده خالص آب مجازی است. به طور متوسط در سال‌های مورد بررسی ایران به واسطه تجارت محصولات زراعی و باغی سالانه  3/4 میلیارد مترمکعب صادرات و 8/15 میلیارد مترمکعب واردات آب مجازی داشته است. در میان محصولات زراعی و باغی، حبوبات و خشکبار براساس آب مصرفی ویژه برآورد شده آن­ها، محصولاتی پر مصرف هستند. نتایج بدست آمده اطلاعاتی را فراهم کرده است که می تواند برای بهینه سازی ترکیب تجاری محصولات کشاورزی در راستای حفظ منابع آب و تامین امنیت غذایی مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Measuring and Analyzing the Specific Water Demand for Agricultural Products and the Position of Iran in Trade with other Countries

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Tahami Pour Zarandi 1
  • Mohammad Ghorbani 2
1 Assistant Professor of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 MA in Planning and Economic Syatems, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Water resources management and use in agriculture are important due to the scarcity of water and soil resources and the increasing demand for food because of population growth. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the volume of water exported and imported in the form of agricultural products trade. For this purpose, the technical-baseline approach has been used to measure virtual water and special water demand of trade for 36 crops and garden products has been calculated for the period 2001-2015. The results showed that Iran was a virtual net water importer in the agronomy crops in the mentioned years and a virtual net water exporter in the garden products. In general, iran was net virtual water importer. On average, Iran exported 4.3 billion cubic meters of annual crops and 15.8 billion cubic meters of imported water annually through trade in crops and garden products. Among crops and garden products, legumes and pulses are the most widely consumed crops based on their estimated specific water demand. The results provide some information that can be used to optimize the commercial mix of agricultural products to conserve water resources and ensure food security.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water
  • Virtual Water Trade
  • Agriculture Section
  • Iran
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